Critical infrastructure is a growing target for hackers – old, but reliable digital tools leave many vulnerabilities for hackers to exploit. “Today, water utilities are attacked by hackers on a daily basis,” write Ariel Stern and Yair Poleg in Water Canada’s latest feature.

Cybersecurity in Water Utilities

Water Utilities being subjects to cyberattacks by Ariel Stern and Yair Poleg, Co-Founders of Ayyeka.


Just south of the border, a water utility produces 20 million gallons of potable water daily, dispersed through 1000 kilometers of pipes for the benefit of 130,000 consumers. Vaguely aware of growing cybersecurity threats in the water industry, the utility invited a technology firm to perform a security audit.

From the comfort of his hotel room downtown, the “white hat” hacker performing the security audit successfully infiltrated the water network. A data logger transmitted information from a remote asset without encryption directly to the operational SCADA network. The hack took minutes and opened the door to the entire system controlling the water utility’s every action.

Shocked by the speed and ease at which the hacker gained access, this water utility decided to completely overhaul and modernize the network with an emphasis on both data communication and cybersecurity.

A decade ago, this interception would not have been likely. When industrial automation was first adopted by critical utilities, there was little reason to be concerned about cyber threats. Industrial automation took place offline, disconnected from the rest of the world, and “in the fence” — within the utility’s facility. Cyberwarfare was uncommon, with high barriers of entry for hackers. Within a water facility, cyber threats were not probable.

Today, water utilities are attacked by hackers on a daily basis. Many of these utilities use technology developed decades ago without any concerns for cybersecurity. While these automation tools may provide reliable services, they are extremely ineffective against cyberattack.

Who is interested in hacking water? What are they trying to do?

Water utilities are attractive targets for any hacker. As a critical resource, hackers in control of water utilities can demand almost anything to return control of the utility. Criminal hackers, government operatives, terrorists, “hacktivists” with an agenda, or even just a bored individual with no other outlet for his or her abilities all have what to gain from hacking a water utility.

What hackers seek to do after gaining access to the water utility differs. The most common motivation is ransomware blackmail, untraceable when paid by bitcoin. Other hackers seek to deny service; by hacking into the system they can shut it down. Still others are interested in stealing sensitive data, just think of the many credit card details for sale on the black market — water utilities contain that same sensitive data. Data manipulation, say changing the levels of chemical in the water, is another force driving cyberattacks. As is publicity, hackers who publicly expose their control of an important system to gain fame and prestige.

The water sector is vulnerable to any of these types of cyberattacks. Water utilities pay ransomware quietly several times a week. With no reporting requirements, this cost is quietly passed down to the consumer. Cyber attacks targeting data in the water industry are more dangerous. Shutting down a water network responsible for such a critical service would result in devastating consequences. Manipulating data within the network prompts unbalanced reactions, possibly causing the utility to poison the water itself. All the more reason for water utilities to prioritize cybersecurity in their systems.

How do hackers gain access to the water network?

While the reasons and identities of those attacking water utilities differ, the process through which hackers gain control over a water system is the same. A hacker’s first move is to identify the weakest asset within the network to attack. Any attack depends on this initial toehold into the system. Once that opportunity is identified and targeted, the entire system is at risk. For example, if the hacker’s target is the water utility’s well-protected SCADA system, a hacker may gain access through a seemingly harmless transmission from a remote device in the field, opening an innocent looking email, or upgrading standard software.

This initial vulnerability in the system makes an entire cyberattack possible. Quietly, without raising any red flags, the hacker works his or her way through the network, encrypting the water system’s data until only the hacker has control of the water utility. This may take up to a week, depending on the size and complexity of the water network. When only the hacker has the tools to decrypt the system, ransomware can be demanded, or data manipulated.

Can Utilities Protect Themselves by Excluding Technology?

If technology opens the door to potential threats and cyberattacks, why bother? Perhaps a more cautious approach is necessary? Regrettably or not, the digital transformation of water utilities is here to stay. Without technology and digital tools, there is no way water infrastructure can meet current demand, and definitely no way to provide enough water in the future.

The water industry faces numerous challenges. Aging infrastructure, growing populations, and extreme weather test the limits of water utilities daily. Automation and digitization allow water utilities to extend the lifespan and abilities of such critical infrastructure. Technology allows utilities to maximize existing resources, despite many challenges.

The water industry’s future relies on technology. Big data generated by IoT devices brings new insights to hydraulic models. Furthermore, Infrastructure 4.0 brings artificial intelligence to edge devices in water mains to attain new operational abilities and extend the lifespan of aging hard infrastructure. There is no way to avoid technology if water utilities are to meet tomorrow’s needs. However, technology must be adopted in a cybersecure manner.

Zero Trust Cybersecurity for Critical Utilities

Historically, water utilities only had full visibility of “in the fence” actions, whatever was happening in the water plant. Many water utilities today have a historic approach to cybersecurity; a “perimeter” approach focuses on security for the water treatment plant but no concerns for assets in the field.

Industrial IoT provides data from the rest of the network, the thousands of kilometers of water main pipes, dozens of pressure release valves, and storage tanks — all the components previously operating blindly. This visibility and situational awareness of the complete water network enables the quick, precise detection of leaks and monitoring water quality throughout the water network. However, this sophisticated solution is comprised of many components, and each is vulnerable to cyberattack.

The critical, initial cybersecurity breach could target any one of these components: sensors, meters, transmitters, servers, software platforms. Each is a potential vulnerability. Additionally, every interaction between components is a possible vulnerability. The only way to maintain security is to make sure each component is secure. A zero-trust approach focuses on securing not only the central water plant, but also all the interconnected assets in the water network. After all, the water network is only as secure as its most vulnerable asset.

Cybersecurity for water utilities requires a double focus: secure architecture and security updates. The architecture and foundation of the network must be designed with security in mind. Additionally, all hardware and software on the network must be constantly updated to meet the latest security vulnerabilities.


Mitigating cyberthreats is a constantly evolving process. With over 50 new cyberthreats reported daily, responsible water professionals must be aware of the basic security issues surrounding this critical service. Choosing the right technology that provides both functionality and security is key.

Cyberattacks could happen to anyone but are most likely to happen to the least protected. Utilities are high profile and important, making them attractive targets for hackers. Keeping up with ever-evolving cyber threats requires ongoing effort.

Originally Published in Water Canada:

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