From physical security to digital security, our world has undergone a total digital transformation in the two decades since September 11, 2001, forcing us to redefine what resilience means for critical infrastructure. No longer just an equation of how much damage steel and concrete support can withstand in the event of a terror attack, engineers must now judge how the virtual dimension both strengthens and threatens critical infrastructure.
Twenty years ago, terror was confined to the physical. Critical utilities utilized few digital tools and cyberthreats were limited to science fiction. Engineers tasked with designing critical civil infrastructure focused on physical resilience.